Posts Tagged ‘emissions’


September 3, 2015

p1010584*EPA answers questions on R-22a and R-22

*Class I Ozone-depleting refrigerants

*Con Edison net metering FAQ

Engines for Mobile Generator Builders

November 21, 2013

customModuleResultCategory52Two new Cummins Power Generation’s G-drive engines from 240 to 433 horsepower meet EPA Tier 4 final emissions regulations without the need of a diesel particulate filter (CMI)¬†: Mobile generator builders can now select from two new diesel G-drive engines from Cummins Power Generation that are certified to meet EPA Tier 4 Final emissions regulations for nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM or soot) without the use of a DPF. Instead, the new engines employ a combination of in-cylinder combustion improvements, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) exhaust after-treatment. These new engines are suitable for powering generators from 150 to 300 kVA.

For NYISO or NYC exhaust requirements for stand-by generation, please write to

Weather and Energy

December 7, 2010

* Jon D. Markman reports on European weather:

” Europe is enduring a massive freeze here in early December. Dozens of major airports on the Continent have closed due to heavy snow, roads are blocked and Eurostar international rail service has been canceled. The unseasonable cold snap has been thought until now to be a fluke, but climates are changing and old views about norms are being challenged.

” One of the effects of global warming has been a lot of ice in the Arctic released into the northern seas. This is fresh water, so it is diluting the Atlantic Ocean’s natural salinity by just enough to matter. Since fresher water freezes at a higher temperature than saltier water, the Atlantic coast of Europe has become much colder than normal — in some cases by as much as 10 degrees. Then when the wind blows across this colder water, it carries this icier weather onto the landform.

” The net effect is a continent that is on track to become persistently cold at a time when oil and gas prices are around the same as they were in balmier times. This must be one of the reasons we see crude oil prices barreling past resistance, and coal prices at their strongest levels in months. ”

Statoil chart from 1 December to 7 Dec. 11:45 AM Eastern Time:

U.S. Oil v Brent North Sea Crude chart, same period:

Ironically, the European Union is the sole remaining large emitter committed to carbon caps, and the UK is the only country with a legally binding framework to cut carbon dioxide emissions.


September 17, 2009

downtown_mapNew York City has made a commitment to conduct an annual comprehensive greenhouse gas emissions inventory. The City released its first emissions inventory along with PlaNYC on Earth Day 2007.

plaNYC includes various public transportation initiatives, including expansion of ferry service, as excerpted below:

“Across the city, more than 60 miles of largely-abandoned waterfront land is being reclaimed for recreation and new communities. But some of these neighborhoods lack the basic transportation infrastructure required for sustainable growth. In some areas, the nearest subway stop is more than three-quarters of a mile away. Where there is service, the trains and buses are increasingly crowded as growing numbers of commuters use stations closest to Manhattan.

Ferries and water taxis can help solve both of these problems. In addition, ferries have proven that they can provide critical backup transportation for the city during emergencies, as they did on 9/11 and during the 2003 blackout.”

Today’s press release from plaNYC deals with school buses and reads:


“By passing Intro. 622-A, the City Council is taking a step that will protect public health and the environment by decreasing the emissions that come from school buses. The legislation passed today, which I intend to sign, requires all diesel-powered school buses to be retrofitted to keep pollution out of bus cabins by 2011 and lowers the retirement age of buses to 16 years starting in 2010, allowing the Department of Education to take the oldest buses off our streets. These old buses make up just 11 percent of the fleet but are responsible for a disproportionate amount of pollution. Intro 622-A will protect children and school bus drivers from diesel pollution inside of school buses and will decrease air emissions by requiring that replacement buses comply with the latest EPA emissions standards. It will also allow us to complete one of the 127 initiatives in PlaNYC, our long-term plan for a greener, greater New York City.” 2106 sif statue


May 8, 2009


The reserve margin imbalance for electric energy supply as forecast by IPP Calpine is found below. With only one grid in supply balance, the need for added generation throughout the US is evident. With new generation projects slowing in development due to financing difficulties, the outcome is higher electric energy prices going forward. Add to the supply imbalance the projected infrastructural improvements, and their accompanying rate increase requests from the regulated utilities, and one must conclude that electric rates are going much higher almost everywhere across the continental US. *
090216 projected market equilibrium

Who will benefit? Certainly the utilities that can produce merchant power at the lowest rate. This is the nuclear utilities. Another beneficiary will be providers of electric reduction technologies and solutions, as enterprise and non-profit customers seek to lower energy bills through conservation.

The nuclear utilities have been “on the move” over the last five days. Below is the five-day chart of the common stock of Entergy, with the utility index VDE included for comparison. A similar move has taken place in the common stock price of another nuclear utility, FPL. Besides their nuclear facilities, FPL have a considerable renewable energy portfolio; they are the largest wind generation developer in the world.


Is the stock market telling us something about the utility industry as a profit-generating sector, or is this recent development a tell on coming Cap and Trade rules and their relationship to clean power producers? Or are the increased market values of Entergy and FPL just part of the “bear market rally”?

* The imbalance for the Pacific Northwest results from its percentage of hydro generation and the variability of that energy source.


April 30, 2009


With climate change discussions pervasive on US university web sites and Nobel Laureate DOE Secretary Chu on board with Cap and Trade, it may be of interest to see what the other side of the discussion presents.

One of the key arguments made by Cap and Trade opponents is the adverse economic affect on US households through increased utility bills. However, energy conservation is starting to impact proceeds of regulated utilities, as we hear today from the Centerpoint Energy CEO.

Another argument posed by Cap and Trade opponents is that carbon capture technology is not commercially available and will not be until 2020.

On the other side of the discussion and also reported today: By 2020 climate change may have an impact on rice production of our former adversaries greater than any we inflicted.

Clinton Global Initiative and actor Edward Norton have formed the 2020 Initiative to reach 20 million television viewers annually to present stories about climate and world poverty.

Climate change may be fact, but Cap and Trade appears flawed.

Maybe Hollywood will provide the vision to sort this all out.

Photo of grazing African elephants by Cook

April 26, 2009


A partisan debate which began on Earth Day is taking place in the US Senate: what will be the nature of the new emissions tax.

The states have individually been considering legislation, a plan which highlights the absurdity of trying to legislate atmospheric conditions on a local or even national level.

Carbon cap-and-trade policies are intended to reduce carbon emissions. Carbon based generators would be required to acquire allowances to cover their emissions. The emissions tax may be limited to CO2, or it may also include nitrous oxide and sodium oxide (NOXSOX), mercury, CO, and methane.

For commercial-scale renewable energy projects in development, the Production Tax Credit is still critical. RPS mandates adopted by over half of the US states also create demand for Renewable Energy Certificates (REC). These provide a revenue stream to generation owners. Voluntary markets (VRE) provide another source of demand for renewable energy projects. Together with the sale of electricity and demand capacity, these three additional sources of income allow projects to go forward with a predictable return on investment.

Demand for voluntary renewable energy (VRE) is motivated to a large extent by the purchasers’ desire to reduce emissions below what would be required legislatively. Cap and Trade programs therefore have the potential to thrawt demand for VRE.

The VRE market is comprised of customers of utility “green pricing programs”, customers of competitive energy providers in electric market restructured states (such as New York and New England states served by their respective ISO), and enterprise and non-profit customers that buy unbundled renewable energy credits.

NREL estimates that in 2007 US consumers made voluntary purchases of REC totaling 18 million MWh.

Compare how the VRE – REC markets encourage renewable energy projects: the voluntary market primarily supports new renewable generation for the incremental benefit provided. Since 2004, VRE demand has exceeded compliance market demand.

Voluntary demand is growing. The market grew year-on-year by 62% in 2004, 37% in ’05, 41% in ’06, and 53% in ’07. If it continues to grow at the rate of 40%, the VRE market will reach 50 million MWh by 2010.

By comparison, state RPS policies collectively call for utilities to obtain 60 million MWh of renewable electricity by 2010. Although RPS-mandated demand may outstrip voluntary demand in the future, the VRE market is significant.

In the VRE market, enterprise and non-profit purchases comprise 3/4 of the MWh transacted. These customers are trying to reach organizational emissions goals. When they purchase renewable energy in the VRE market, they have effectively reduced their emissions. These voluntary actions are in addition to what is required by statute (currently zero for all enterprise and non-profit customers/generators in NYS, up to 2 MW of generation capacity), unlike the RPS requirements placed on the regulated generating electric utilities.

In the absence of a Cap and Trade emissions tax, the generation from renewable sources displaces whatever generation is operating at the margin, which is fossil-fuel based generation, thereby reducing systemic emissions.

But if Cap and Trade emission tax is enacted, the purchase of renewable energy electricity no longer reduces emissions. This result was recently explained by the California PUC. In October of last year, the CPUC acknowledged that the VRE market would be affected by Cap and Trade. They wrote:

“Once pollutants in the electricity sector are subject to a cap, purchase of voluntary renewables (VRE) do not contribute to further reductions, because the cap determines the allowable level of emissions. ”

Global climate change discussion not withstanding, the Senate need to do some serious homework before they act.